WHAT IS ISLAM?

Islam is an Abrahamic religion which teaches belief in one Allah (The most high, God) and that prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) is the last prophet of Allah. All the prophets of Allah including Abraham, Moses, Jesus, Muhammad (Peace be upon them) brought the same message for all the humanity that worship Allah alone.

THE HOLY QURAN

The Qur'an al Karim is the primary source of the Islamic religion and is the word of God, literally the Muhammad (as) sent in Arabic. The Arabic text of the Quran al Karim is authentic. It is the last divine revelation to the seal of the Prophet Muhammad (as). Quran means "reading, recitation" and has been revealed on different occasions over 23 years. It has 114 suras (chapters) consisting of Ayats (Quranic verses, signs). It contains many narratives and only a few normative determinations.

THE FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM

Among the five pillars of Islam each one is important practices of the Islamic religion, which have a compulsory character for religious scholars.

1) SHAHADA - CREED

The Islamic creed is described as Shahada and says, "I testify that there is no god except Allah, and I testify that Muhammad is his messenger of Allah. (Arabic: Ashhadu al la ilaaha illallaah wa ashhadu anna Muhammedan abduhu wa rasu luhu) Everyone who takes the Shahada from his own will and expresses it is considered a Muslim or Muslim. This also applies to Muslim children born as Muslims.

2) SALAH

As Salah (namaz) one calls the Islamic prayer, which is fixed five times daily at certain prayer times. The prayer follows a certain course and physical attitudes (standing, bowing, shedding) and differs entirely from a dua (prayer of prayer). In prayer, the Muslims turn towards the Qibla (prayer direction to Kaaba). The prayer requires a preliminary ritual washing of specific body parts (wudu, abdest).

PRAYER TIMES

Prayer times generally depend on the position of the sun, which can now be calculated astronomically. This means that prayer periods are covered, within which prayer is to be performed. The beginning of a prayer also determines the end of the previous prayer. In total, there are 40 recruits (prayer units) daily, 20 of them Sunna (on a voluntary basis) and 20 recruits (mandatory).

3) SAWM - FASTING

Fasting in the month of Ramadan is one of the five duties of every Muslim. Fasting in the Islamic sense means daily to keep away from the dawn of dawn until the sunset of food, drink, smoking and sexual intercourse. In fasting, there are also exemptions for the sick, travelers, pregnant women, breastfeeding mothers and old people. Fasting is meant to serve both physical and spiritual purification. The fasting time is completed with the Eid al Fitr.

4) ZEKAT - RELIGIOUS SOCIAL CONTRIBUTIONS

The fourth pillar of Islam is the Zekat. Muslims are to donate 2,5% of their potentially profitable assets annually to the poor, the needy and other Zek beneficiaries such as "guilty". Sub Funds are money, real estate, shares, etc., and are defined as habits that go beyond basic needs.

5) HAJJ - PILGRIMAGE

The fifth pillar of Islam forms the Hajj, pilgrimage to the holy cities of Islam Mecca and Medina. It is one of the most important highlights in the life of Muslims. This unique duty exists for every Muslim and Muslima who can afford the Hajj financially and healthily. The Muslim pilgrim is called Hadji. The most important rituals in this pilgrimage are entering the Ihram (consecration of two cloths in men, normal clothing in women), the Tawaf of the Kaaba, the running between the Safa and Marwa hills, the Waqfa at Arafat , Stoning of the three pillars that symbolize the devil, the shaving or shortening of the head hair. The Hajj takes place in the twelfth month (Dhulhiddsha) of the Hijri calendar and is concluded with the sacrificial festival (Eid al Adha) on the tenth day of the Dhulhiddsha.

UMRA

Also called small Hajj, means voluntary pilgrimages, which can be carried out at any time. The components of an Umra are the seven-time Tawaf of the Kaaba, seven times between Safa and Marwa and the shaving or shortening of the head hair. The Umra can also be connected to the Hadj. In doing so, the rituals of the Umra must be performed in addition to the Hajj rituals.

KAABA

The dice-shaped building in Mecca was built by Ibrahim (as) and his son Ismail (as) as (Baitullah). The stone mangers are covered with a black cloth with golden lettering from the Quranic verses. On the south-east corner is the Hadjar al-aswad, the "black stone" of paradise origin. Kaaba literally means cube and, as the most important sanctuary of Islam, forms the center of prayer of the Muslims around the world.

THE ISLAMIC ARTICLE OF FAITH (IMAN ARTICLE)

" Amentu " (I believe) the six principles of the Islamic faith are briefly summarized:
Aamentu (1) billaahi (2) we melaaiketihi (3) we kutubihi (4) we rusulihi (5) we l yewmil ahiri (6) we bilqaderi hairihi we sherrihi minallaahi te'ala wel ba'su ba'del mewti haqqun

1) TO ALLAH (CC)

Believing that Allah is one and only.

2) TO THE ANGELS (SG. MALAK, PL. MALAIKA)

Angels are beings that Allah has created from "nuur" (light) and which are not visible with the naked eye. They serve Allah and are gender neutral and do not nourish themselves as humans. Four great angels are known by name: Jabrail, Mikail, Israfil, and the Azrail Death Angel.

3) TO THE HOLY BOOKS (SG. KITAB, PL. KUTUB)

Kutub are the holy books which have come to the messengers of Allah. Alongside these books there are smaller writings (suhuf) and larger writings (kutub). Larger writings have been disclosed to Davud (as), Musa (as), Isa (as), and Muhammed (as). These are Zebur, Tevrat, incil (bible) and Quran al Karim.

4) TO THE MESSENGERS OF ALLAH (SG. RASUL, PL. RUSUL)

There are messengers who Allah Taala has sent to humanity from time to time. Some have lived at the same time as Ibrahim (as) and Lut (as), some at different times. The chain of messengers begins with Adem (as) going over Noah (as), Musa (as), Isa (as) and ending with the seal of the messengers (Hatam an nabiyyin) Muhammed (as).

5) TO THE JUDGEMENT DAY (YAUM AL AKHIRAT)

Akhirat includes the resurrection after death and the entire hereafter, among other things, accountability before Allah, Dhennette (Heaven), and Jenhennem (Hell).

6) TO THE QADER (DESTINY)

Qader and Qadha are two terms with which the entire existence is described. Qader is the divine destiny of all things and events that He has recorded on the Levhi Mahfuz (well-preserved panel). Qadha describes the temporal and spatial execution of the Qader and is, so to speak, the realization of the Qader.

However, this provision takes into account the free act of will (irada al dschuziyya) in relation to man. Allah subordinates his will (irada al kulliyya) with respect to human action to human will (irada al cuziyya). Man is free in his actions and must be responsible for it before Allah Teala. In this context, it would be appropriate to speak of prediction. In his predestination, Allah Teala, because of his omniscience, has foreseen and considered the free act of will of man.

THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD

CHILDHOOD AND YOUTH

The Messenger of Allah was born 571 in Mecca. His father Abdullah died shortly before his birth. Muhammed (saw) was educated in his first years by his dairy mother Halima from the tribe of Banu Sa'ad. At the age of six, he was defeated by the loss of his mother Amina. He then came to the care of his grandfather Abdulmuttalib. When the latter died, his son Abu Talib took over the education of the growing child.

MUHAMMED EL EMIN (SAW)

The Messenger of Allah was known in the pre-Islamic period among the Arabs with the property of Amin, the Sincere, the Reliable. He was asked for advice in disputes. In the restoration of the Kaaba, he was the one who placed the black stone in its place and thus settled a quarrel between the Meccan tribes.

MARRIAGE WITH HADICE

At 25, Muhammed (sas) married the forty-year-old Hadice. From this marriage two boys (Kasim, Ibrahim) and four daughters (Zainab, Rukiyya, Ummu Gülsüm and Fatima (ra)) emerged. After her death, the Messenger of Allah married other women.

CALLING AS MESSENGER OF ALLAH

Occasionally the Messenger of Allah withdrew to Hira. When he was 40 years old, he once again sought the place of solitude and silence. This time he had a special experience. The messenger of Allah saw an angel. The angel asked him to read. But the messenger did not know what to read. Then the angel grabbed him and pressed his chest, and began to read aloud. At the same time, the following verses passed over the lips of the ambassador:

Read
In the name of your Lord, Who created
He created man from a clot of blood
Read, then, your Lord is all-merciful.
He who taught with the writing-tube taught man,
Which he did not know.
Surat al Alaq (96): 1-4

"O Muhammad, I am the Archangel Jabrail, and You are Rasulullah, the Messenger of Allah." Thus the messenger began to proclaim the divine message to his relatives and the Meccans. But the new message was very difficult to accept for the ruling class of Meccans and led to oppression and reprisals by the new Muslim community. Thus, in 622 CE, the emissary emigrated from his birthplace Mecca to Yathrib, which later became known as Medina (City of the Messenger).

HIJRAH

The migration from Mecca to Madina in the year 622 has entered the history as Hijrah and was declared the beginning of the Islamic time account. In Medina he concluded the first city contract with the Medinians, in which mutual solidarity and protection were agreed with the Medinensian tribes and other religious communities. In 632 AD he died and was buried in his mosque at Medina.

THE ISLAMIC TIME CALCULATION ACCORDING TO THE HIJRI CALENDAR

The Hijri calendar begins with the migration (Hijrah) of the Messenger Muhammad (as) from his birthplace Mecca to Medina in 622 AD. It has twelve months and is eleven days shorter than a normal year. As a result, Islamic ceremonies, which are fixed according to the calendar of the moon, move eleven days a year, as measured by the solar calendar. A moon month has 29 to 30 days and is initiated with the sighting of the crescent moon (Hilal).

THE HIJRI MONTHS

1) Muharram
2) Safar
3) Rabi' al-awwal
4) Rabi' al-thani
5) Jumada al-awwal
6) Jumada al-thani
7) Rajab
8) Sha'ban
9) Ramadan
10) Shawwal
11) Dhu al-Qi'dah
12) Dhu al-Hijjah

BLESSED DAYS

ISLAMIC NEW YEAR

The first month of the Hijri calendar is Muharram. This is the beginning of the Islamic New Year. There is no special celebration for the Islamic New Year. Muharram is also one of the four holy months (ashhuru hurum).

ASHURA

The name for the tenth day of Muharram is Ashura. On this day important events took place, such as the recognition of the repentance of Adam (as), the salvation of Ibrahim (as) from fire, the salvation of Musa (as) from the oppression of Pharaoh, the healing of Ayyub (as) 
Ashura is also the name for a dessert that is specially made on this day and traditionally distributed to neighbors and friends. Ashura will also be traced back to Noah (as). It is part of the Sunnah to fast on Ashura day.

EID AL FITR

Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic Hijri calendar. It is the month where fasting is mandatory and is considered a month of Umma. Ramadan is the only named of the twelve months in the Qur'an (2: 185). In Ramadan is also the night of the (Lailatal-Qadr), in which the Quran was revealed to the Messenger Muhammad (as). Therefore, during the Ramadan, 1/30 (Juzan) of the Qur'an is recited every day, and a Hatm-al Quran (reading through the Quran) is performed. The common Quran reading in Ramadan is called Mukabele. 
The Eid al Fitr is one of the two major Islamic holidays. Holidays are meant to bring joy to children, the poor, the needy, the weak, the elderly, To congratulate each other and to visit each other, but also to reconcile themselves.

EID AL UDHIYA - THE SACRIFICIAL FEAST

The sacrificial festival is also known as the great festival. Muslims who are financially able to sacrifice animals such as sheep, goats, cattle or camels during these days, and share the flesh with neighbors and needy people. In the case of large animals such as cattle and camels, seven people can participate. The sacrificial holiday is important of the sacrifice history of Ismail (as) and the loyalty of Ibrahim (as) to Allah. This event is an warning to mankind that God has forbidden human sacrifice for all time.

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